Q. Origin of Social Work

Origin of Social Work
Pre-Modern history

In the West, when Constantine I legalized the Christian Church, the newly legitimised church set up poorhouses, homes for the aged, hospitals, and orphanages. As there was no effective bureaucracy below city government that was capable of charitable activities, the clergy served this role in the west up through the 18th century.

During the Middle Ages, the Christian church had vast influence on European society and charity was considered to be a responsibility and a sign of one’s piety. The practice and profession of social work has a relatively modern (19th century) and scientific origin.

Modern history

Social work, as a profession, originated in the 19th century. The movement began primarily in the United States and England. This system of laws sorted the poor into different categories, such as the able bodied poor, the impotent poor, and the idle poor. This led to many social problems, which in turn led to an increase in social activism. In America, the various approaches to social work led to a fundamental question – is social work a profession? This debate can be traced back to the early 20th century debate between Mary Richmond's Charity Organization Society (COS) and Jane Addams's Settlement House Movement. Even as many schools of social work opened and formalized processes for social work began to be developed, the question lingered. This led to the professionalization of social work, concentrating on case work and the scientific method.

American History

Following European settlement of northern America, the only social welfare was in the area of public health. When epidemics occurred, quarantine facilities were built to prevent contamination. As populations grew, Almhouses were built to house vulnerable people with no other support, including people with a long term illness or older people without families. In 1736 New York opened the Poor House of the City of New York (later renamed Bellevue Hospital) and in 1737 New Orleans opened the Saint John's Hospital to serve the poor of the city.

Modern social work in America has its roots in the mass migrations of the 19th century. The house was both a community service centre and a social research program. Precursors to modern social work arose in Blackwell's infirmary and in Hull House as health professionals began to work with social determinants of poor health.

The first professional social worker to be hired in the United States was Garnet Pelton, in 1905 at the Massachusetts General Hospital. The economic, social, family and psychological conditions that underpinned many of the conditions that patients presented with were recognized for the first time. Social workers would work in a complementary relationship with doctors, the former concentrating on physiological health, and the latter on social health. In addition to this, he saw that social work could improve medicine by providing a critical perspective on it while working alongside it in an organizational setting.

This approach soon spread through other American hospitals, and in 1911, there were 44 social work departments in 14 different cities. Two years later, the number of social work departments had grown to 200.

Australian History

Social work as a profession in Australia developed later than in England or America, with the first professional social workers being hired in the 1920s. Social work training began in Australia in 1940 at the University of Sydney. Most high level training and theory was imported from abroad until the 1980s. Since the 1990s, Australian social work has increasingly affiliated itself with Pacific Islander and New Zealand approaches.

Social Work has been a mostly public sector or not-for-profit sector profession in Australia, with private practice being rare. Since the 1990s, other reactions to managerial control of social work have followed theories of feminism, ecological sustainability and critical theories.

English History

The growth of social work in England as a discipline had similar parallels to the American experience of mass migration and social upheaval. The Industrial Revolution was a major cause of these changes, as social and economic conditions changed, resulting in the massive growth of cities. The first social workers were called hospital almoners, and were based in medical institutions. The Royal Free Hospital hired Mary Stewart as the first almoner in 1895. The role soon developed to cover the provision of other social programs, and by 1905 other hospitals had created similar roles.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org
HISTORY: The Faculty of Social Work, Baroda owes its origin to the progressive outlook and vision of the first Vice Chancellor of M. S. University, Smt. Hansa Mehta. Though, chronologically it was the third institution imparting social work education in India, it happens to be the very first institute to have gained a faculty status. Established on March 15, 1950, the Faculty made a modest beginning as the Baroda School of Social Work (in 1951, elevated to the faculty status) in the White Pavilion building in Sayajibaug. Following which, it was moved to the seminar building of the Baroda College to occupy its present premises in 1960. The faculty was privileged to have Dr. Perin Vakharia as the founder Dean and faculty members of national and international repute who joined together to build a strong foundation. GENERAL INFORMATION : Year of establishment: 1949-50 Also known as Baroda School of Social Work Nationally and internationally reputed institute with a pioneering role in social work education. Interactions with other departments/inter departmental support: Management, Education & Psychology, Home Science, Medicine, Arts, Science and Commerce. VISION : To emerge as a leading institute in quality and excellence in Social Work and Human Resource Management. The Faculty addresses the new challenges and work demands of the changing scenario with unique diagnostic, interventive and managerial skills to reach the vulnerable groups of clients. The Faculty endorses its sustainable initiative with thrust areas of human resource management, poverty alleviation and social development with emphasis on target groups viz women, SC, ST, girl child, elderly, childcare. The Faculty commits itself towards establishing strategic networks for University-Industry-Community Interface for better exposure and meaningful education. The Faculty with its generic base offers a unique model of Social Work & HRM. The Faculty provides leadership and guidance in Social Work and Human Resource Management through its extensive Research, Consultancy, Field Work and Extension Work and join hands wherever necessary with Campus Agencies. MISSION: To emerge as a leading institute in quality and excellence in social work and human resource management by imparting professional body of knowledge, code of conduct and ethics, attitude and skills in social work and human resource management. Providing multi-faceted learning opportunities to equip the professionals through sound research and extension projects. Providing students with knowledge, competencies and tool set par excellence to meet the expectations of the socio-economic environment. To enhance academic and research contribution at micro and macro level through policy initiatives, interventions and breakthroughs in social services and human resource development. To build strategic alliances with the government, NGO�s, corporate etc. for continuous improvement and organizational learning contributed through field experimentation, theory building and research expertise. To consistently pursue initiatives through research, training and consultancy for advancement of the profession. To align social work and human resource objectives with national priorities and fundamental problems in a developmental context. OBJECTIVES: To provide theory, practice and research exposure to students in social work and human resource management and other allied courses offered in the faculty. To provide opportunities for individual growth and development; To equip the students to assume leadership in civic life and evolve into socially aware and responsible citizens themselves. To equip students to take up challenging jobs in various fields of social work and human resource management and other respective fields. To create a Federation of Social Work and Social Service Agencies. FOCUS: The institute focuses equally on Theory ,Action Research and Fieldwork. It is one of the few institutes, which has a strong blend of theory and concurrent extensive fieldwork to groom professionals to befit themselves in dynamic socio-economic milieus and social environment. For more details, please follow the URL: http://fswmsu.com/ Source: http://www.msubaroda.ac.in/faculty.php?fac_id=11&action=home
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