Communication & Listening

Communication is a process whereby information is enclosed in a package and is channeled and imparted by a sender to a receiver via some medium. The receiver then decodes the message and gives the sender a feedback.



Functions of Communication

The Communication Process

Communication Fundamentals

Key Communication Skills

Functions of Communication: Control, Motivation, Emotional Expression, Information

The Communication Process: Source—Encoding—Channel—Decoding–Receive

Communication Fundamentals: Direction: Downward, Upward, Crosswise

Networks: Formal vs. Informal

Barriers to Effective Communication: Filtering, Selective Perception, Emotions, Language

Basic Communication Skills: Listening, Speaking, Reading, Writing

Listening Is With The Mind,Hearing With The Senses, Listening Is Conscious,An Active Process Of Eliciting InformationIdeas, Attitudes And Emotions,Interpersonal, Oral Exchange

Fallacies about Listening

Listening is not my problem!,Listening and hearing are the same,Good readers are good listeners,Smarter people are better listeners,Listening improves with age,Learning not to listen,Thinking about what we are going to say rather than listening to a speaker,Talking when we should be listening,Hearing what we expect to hear rather than what is actually said,Not paying attention ( preoccupation, prejudice, self-centeredness, stero-type),Listening skills are difficult to learn,

Stages of the Listening Process

1.Hearing, 2.Focusing on the message, 3.Comprehending and interpreting, 4.Analyzing and Evaluating, 5.Responding, 6.Remembering

Barriers to Active Listening

Environmental barriers, Physiological barriers, Psychological barriers, Selective Listening, Negative Listening, Attitudes, Personal Reactions and Poor Motivation

How to Be an Effective Listener

What You Think about Listening?

@ Understand the complexities of listening@ Prepare to listen@ Adjust to the situation@ Focus on ideas or key points@ Capitalize on the speed differential@ Organize material for learning

What You Feel about Listening?

@ Want to listen@ Delay judgment@ Admit your biases@ Don’t tune out “dry” subjects@ Accept responsibility for understanding@ Encourage others to talk


What You Do about Listening?

@ Establish eye contact with the speaker @ Take notes effectively @ Be a physically involved listener @ Avoid negative mannerisms @ Exercise your listening muscles@ Follow the Golden Rule 

Feedback Skills

1.Positive vs. Negative Feedback,2.Positive feedback is more readily and accurately perceived than negative feedback,3. Positive feedback fits what most people wish to hear and already believe aboutthemselves,4.Negative feedback is most likely to be accepted when it comes from a credible source if it is objective in form, 5.Subjective impressions carry weight only when they come from a person with high,status and credibility

Developing Effective Feedback Skills

Focus on specific behaviours;Keep feedback impersonal,Keep feedback goal oriented,Make feedback well timed,Ensure understanding,Direct feedback toward behaviour; that is controllable by the recipient.