Communication is a process whereby information is enclosed in a package and is channeled and imparted by a sender to a receiver via some medium. The receiver then decodes the message and gives the sender a feedback.
Functions of Communication
The Communication Process
Key Communication Skills
Functions of Communication: Control, Motivation, Emotional Expression, Information
The Communication Process: Source—Encoding—Channel—Decoding–Receive
Communication Fundamentals: Direction: Downward, Upward, Crosswise
Networks: Formal vs. Informal
Barriers to Effective Communication: Filtering, Selective Perception, Emotions, Language
Basic Communication Skills: Listening, Speaking, Reading, Writing
Listening Is With The Mind,Hearing With The Senses, Listening Is Conscious,An Active Process Of Eliciting InformationIdeas, Attitudes And Emotions,Interpersonal, Oral Exchange
Fallacies about Listening
Listening is not my problem!,Listening and hearing are the same,Good readers are good listeners,Smarter people are better listeners,Listening improves with age,Learning not to listen,Thinking about what we are going to say rather than listening to a speaker,Talking when we should be listening,Hearing what we expect to hear rather than what is actually said,Not paying attention ( preoccupation, prejudice, self-centeredness, stero-type),Listening skills are difficult to learn,
Stages of the Listening Process
1.Hearing, 2.Focusing on the message, 3.Comprehending and interpreting, 4.Analyzing and Evaluating, 5.Responding, 6.Remembering
Barriers to Active Listening
Environmental barriers, Physiological barriers, Psychological barriers, Selective Listening, Negative Listening, Attitudes, Personal Reactions and Poor Motivation
How to Be an Effective Listener
What You Think about Listening?
@ Understand the complexities of listening@ Prepare to listen@ Adjust to the situation@ Focus on ideas or key points@ Capitalize on the speed differential@ Organize material for learning
What You Feel about Listening?
@ Want to listen@ Delay judgment@ Admit your biases@ Don’t tune out “dry” subjects@ Accept responsibility for understanding@ Encourage others to talk
What You Do about Listening?
@ Establish eye contact with the speaker @ Take notes effectively @ Be a physically involved listener @ Avoid negative mannerisms @ Exercise your listening muscles@ Follow the Golden Rule
1.Positive vs. Negative Feedback,2.Positive feedback is more readily and accurately perceived than negative feedback,3. Positive feedback fits what most people wish to hear and already believe aboutthemselves,4.Negative feedback is most likely to be accepted when it comes from a credible source if it is objective in form, 5.Subjective impressions carry weight only when they come from a person with high,status and credibility
Developing Effective Feedback Skills
Focus on specific behaviours;Keep feedback impersonal,Keep feedback goal oriented,Make feedback well timed,Ensure understanding,Direct feedback toward behaviour; that is controllable by the recipient.